Historical outline

around 15000 B.C. – first tracks of man in the Chelmno area
around 4000 -3000 B.C. – the beginnings of settlement on the Chelmno lands
7th – 9th centuries – the oldest settlement of Chelmno on the St. Laurentius Mountain in Kaldus – Chelmno, the capital of the Chelmno district being a part of Mazovia
1065 – the first mention of Chelmno /as a settlement on the St. Laurentius Mountain in Kaldus/ called Culmen in Latin in a document issued by Boleslaus II the Generous for the Benedictine cloister in Mogilno
1216 – the Prussians destroy Chelmno
1222 – Conrad of Mazovia grants the city to Bishop Christian
1222 – further attempts to Christianize Prussia with the help of Polish dukes
1228 – 1230 – Conrad of Mazovia brings knights of the Teutonic Order to Chelmno area
1232 – The Teutonic Order builds a castle and a new city in present Starogrod – Chelmno becomes the residence of the first commandery of the Teutonic Knights
28.12.1233 so called ‘Chelmno Rights’ – a foundation charter given to the city (a model for over 200 cities)
1243 – Chelmno diocese established
1251 – the foundation charter renewed
mid 13th century – the city is relocated to its current position by the Teutonic Knights
13th and 14th centuries – a period of the city’s prosperity; transit trade is the basis of Chelmno’s significance and fame.
13th – 15th century – intense business activity of, among others, German, English, Dutch and Danish traders
1286 – Vladislaus I the Short’s charter granted to traders heading to Russ
1298 – a market right granted by the Teutonic Order
1300 – 1443 – city’s active participation in the Hanseatic League
1386 – a Pope’s permission to establish a university
since the beginning of the 14th century until 1422 – the Artus Brotherhood
14th and 15th centuries – a period of dissatisfaction among the knights and in the cities of the Teutonic state
1397 – so called ‘Towarzystwo Jaszczurcze’ (The Lizard Society) created and transformed into the Prussian Society in 1440
1410 – the Chelmno Land Regiment takes part in the battle of Grunwald
1454 – 66 – The Thirteen Years’ War, ended with a peace treaty signed in Torun; the Chelmno land returns to Poland.
1457 – 1479 – twenty years’ occupation of the city by a Teutonic regular – Bernard Szumborski
until 1458 – sessions of the Chelmno Law Higher Court
1473 – a high school founded – so called Studium Particulare, later transformed into the Chelmno Academy
15th – 18th centuries – the Chelmno province established
1505 – the city ruled by Chelmno bishops
16th/18th centuries – economical prosperity of the city, arrival of the Scots and the Dutch
1567 – 1596 – the city hall redecorated in the Renaissance style
1649 – the painting of Mary the Sorrowful of Chelmno, Mother of God moved from ‘Bramka’ to the parish church
1676 – the Missionary Priests brought to the city
1694 – the Sisters of God’s Mercy arrive
18th century – a period of impoverishment of the city caused by subsequent wars: the Northern one, the Succession one and the Seven Years’ one
1708 – 1711 – the city engulfed by a plague – a significant decrease of the population
1756 – 1779 – the Chelmno Academy transformed into a branch of the Jagiellonian University
1772 – Chelmno under the Prussian rule as a result of the 1st partition of Poland
1776 – the Cadet School founded to Germanize the young Polish gentry as a result of Frederick II’s order
19th century – Chelmno is the strongest source of Polish identity in Pomerania
1807 – 1815 – the city finds itself within the borders of the Warsaw Duchy
1837 – the Chelmno Secondary School created
1850 – the Nadwislanin newspaper founded
1863 – ‘Wisla’ – the current bugle call – written by Ignacy Danielewski
1885 – the printing house of Walenty Fialek built
1880 – the first ever operation of a stomach conducted by a world famous Polish surgeon Ludwik Rydygier
1882 – a city brickyard built
1883 – a railway connection with Kornatow (1912 – with Unislaw) established
22.01.1920 – Chelmno liberated by Polish troops commanded by Gen. Jozef Haller
01.09.1939 – the World War II breaks out. The Germans order massive arrests and executions of the inhabitants of Chelmno and the area
27.01.1945 – the city is liberated by the soldiers of the 2nd Belarusian Front
since 1945 – economical development of the city: factories and modern estates built, educational development
1963 – a road bridge across the Vistula built
1983 – a museum of the Chelmno Land created in the City Hall
1992 – a partnership arrangement with the German city of Hann Münden signed
2001 – ‘Kurt Schumacher’s European Centre of Youth Exchange’ foundation established in a newly built conference centre by the same name
13.04.2005 – Chelmno’s old town on the President’s list of Historical Monuments